What is xx network?
xx network combines the quantum secure, high performance digital currency and consensus protocol of xx consensus with the privacy-protecting, high speed mix technology of xx cMix. The result is the first efficient online platform that allows you to quickly and securely communicate and exchange value on your smartphone without revealing your metadata. While many messaging platforms are encrypted, no others hide metadata -- information about your activity -- from organizations that collect and sell data. xx does.
xx consensus has developed a next-generation, quantum secure blockchain which hosts the xx coin digital currency using a unique consensus protocol. After transactions are mixed through xx cMix, payments are passed to the decentralized xx nodes running the xx consensus protocol to be confirmed and added to the blockchain. xx network is the only quantum secure, meta data shredding blockchain solution that can combine the speed, scalability, and security properties needed for blockchain technology to achieve mass adoption.
xx cMix technology protects privacy by combining end-to-end encryption with cMix, a revolutionary metadata shredding technology which obscures metadata for messaging and payments and data transfer. With xx cMix, all transactions are mixed together in batches or “anonymity sets” and processed together, thereby shredding all metadata and preventing third parties from analyzing activity patterns and connecting senders to receivers.
Metadata is data about data, like who sent a message or payment, who received it, where it was sent from, and what time it was sent. When metadata is collected and analyzed and exploited by tech companies and governments, it reveals a lot about consumer behavior. xx network fully obscures metadata offering secure, encrypted communications and payments on the first truly private, anonymous, scalable and fast platform. With xx, you can transact with friends, family, and service providers without the fear of being spied upon.
By combining end-to-end encryption with cMix metadata shredding technology, xx offers unprecedented anonymity between and among parties who use the network. The xx quantum secure blockchain protects all information and data from manipulation and tracking. Finally, xx network performance can support consumer volume dApps that require high speed and secure transaction support.
The “flagship” xx messenger dApp allows users to communicate without revealing their contact database or their messaging activity (or content). At MainNet, high speed xx coin payment functionality will be added. As the first high performance crypto currency -- easy-to-use, and offering the true cash privacy -- xx coin will be uniquely capable of supporting decentralized, democratic life.
There are several key additional dApps in development that exploit the strengths of xx network (speed to finality, volume, anonymity). Areas of focus are decentralized fact-checking/content curation, the DeFi market and a better smart contract.
What do xx nodes do?
xx nodes run xx cMix.
Small teams of nodes are randomly selected from the global population of hundreds of nodes to form mixing teams which then precompute the mix and encryption that will be used for cMix processing.
After completing precomputation, each team advertises their availability to users so that each user can connect with a team. These mixing teams then process user data in realtime. Each user’s data is included in an “anonymity set” of 1,000 pieces of data from other users that includes messages, payment instructions and/or smart contract information.
These mixing teams are “temporal” because each team is disbanded after it processes its batch. Team nodes return to the general population to be selected randomly to process future batches by participating in another temporal team.
xx nodes also manage and execute xx consensus filling two different roles.
An xx node can be selected to participate in an endorsing team that checks and confirms results and reaches consensus for each xx block.
Or an xx node can be selected to participate in a block producer team which produces each xx block and records it on the xx blockchain.
As with xx cMix, nodes are randomly selected to participate in these consensus temporal teams; then teams are disbanded, and new consensus teams are selected randomly for later blocks.
Each node runs the full suite of xx network software giving the node the same opportunity to participate as a member of a mixing team, an endorser team and/or a block producer team for each processed xx block.
How are Nodes Rewarded for Running the Network?
Nodes receive a share of the reward generated for each block. Assuming that each node performs well in every role it plays, then, over time, the network will allocate the same amount of block rewards to each node because of the random selection of nodes (to participate in mixing, endorser and block producer teams).
However, if nodes do not perform well, they will be penalized and lose some or all of the block reward that they normally would earn.
How is Staking Used for Nominating Nodes? How is the Network Secured?
The xx network nominates nodes to participate in the network based on the amount of coins that are staked to each node (nodes with the most stake are selected to join the network).
Network Security Comes from the Unmanipulable, Unpredictable Random Selection of Temporal xx Node Teams, from the Use of New Quantum Secure Signatures and from Staking of Nodes
The unmanipulable, unpredictable random selection of nodes for mixing, endorser and block producer teams makes it almost impossible for malicious nodes to seize control of these teams.
The new compact, quantum secure endorser group signatures that are used by xx network make it impossible for malicious nodes to control these signatures by breaking xx’s hash-based quantum secure crypto.
The staking of nodes by coin holders, and by node operators themselves, combined with the upside of earning block rewards and the downside of losing those rewards creates significant incentives for nodes to honestly fulfill their roles.
Node Operators Usually Don’t Earn the Full Block Reward, It is Typically Shared with Stakers
The block rewards that are allocated to each node are shared between the node operator and the coinholders that stake that node. The commission is the percent of rewards that go to the node operator while the rest of the rewards are allocated to coinholders who stake that node.
As a result, generally node operators won’t get the entire block reward; however, if a node operator uses its own xx coins to fully stake its node, then that node operator can earn the entire block reward for that node.
Any Coinholder Can Stake and Help with (i) Securing the Network, (ii) Supporting Liquidity or (iii) Governance and in Return, They Earn Rewards
Staking a Node so That it is Nominated to Participate in the xx network
Any xx coinholder who owns and controls coins with a wallet, or through an exchange supported by the xx network, can easily stake an xx node with their coins. In return, coinholders can earn substantial staking rewards. Staking nodes is a critical element of securing the xx network.
Staking for Liquidity
Any coinholder who owns and controls xx coins with a wallet, or through an exchange supported by the xx network, can easily stake xx liquidity pools. Staking xx liquidity pools is critical to supporting healthy markets for the xx coin so that the coin can be circulated supporting the xx network ecosystem and Tokenomics. In return, coinholders can earn substantial staking rewards.
Staking for Governance
Any xx coinholder who owns and controls coins with a wallet, or though an exchange supported by the xx network, can participate in governance by staking a referendum which has been proposed to improve the xx network. Staking xx governance is critical to supporting the improvement and management of the xx network, ecosystem and tokenomics. In return, coinholders can earn substantial staking rewards.
Where is xx network based and who developed it?
The xx network team and company (xx labs SEZC) is based and headquartered in George Town, Cayman Islands. xx network uses the xx coin digital currency and consensus technology developed in Cayman and the xx cMix privacy layer developed in Los Angeles.
Both projects are led by Dr. David Chaum. Chaum is one of the earliest blockchain researchers and a world-renowned cryptographer and privacy advocate. xx network was founded by Chaum and is led by William Carter, a computer scientist and systems design expert. The xx cMix team is led by Benjamin Wenger. The xx network teams are made up of cryptographers, developers, and marketers all working together to create the most powerful blockchain network for communicating and sharing value anywhere in the world.
Who is David Chaum?
David Chaum is one of the earliest blockchain researchers and a world-renowned cryptographer and privacy advocate. Chaum first proposed a solution for protecting metadata with mix-cascade networks in 1979. In 1982, his dissertation at the University of California, Berkeley became the first known proposal of a blockchain protocol. Dr. Chaum went on to develop eCash, the first digital currency, and has also made numerous contributions to secure voting technology. Today, Chaum leads the xx network, which combines his decades of research and contributions in the field of cryptography and privacy to deliver state-of-the-art blockchain solutions. To learn more about Dr. Chaum, visit www.chaum.com.
What are Elixxir and Praxxis?
Elixxir was the original project name for xx cMix and Praxxis was the original project name for xx consensus. The projects were originally developed in stealth and were merged to form the xx network.
What problems does xx network address?
The aim of crypto currencies (and blockchain more generally) is to decentralize ownership and power so that coinholders, nodes and users have control as opposed to entrenched, centralized entities. The blockchain movement, to a large extent, is a populist reaction to a global history rife with exploitation of centralized control by small groups serving their own self interest.
Critical to the blockchain vision, is that network infrastructure be provided by a group of heterogeneous, decentralized computers managed by consensus so that no self-interested party can create unauthorized value (by “printing money”, double spending existing money, stealing money etc.)
In the modern tech world, the introduction of the high speed, global internet has enabled email, social media, and mobile applications transforming the way we communicate and exchange value. But the mainstream companies that have become dominant during this transformation have proven unwilling or unable to protect user privacy, and instead they have opted for maximizing profits based on advertising.
Even with encrypted applications, centralized companies have collected metadata to track and monetize consumer behavior. Information including sender, recipient, and time stamp for various activities are regularly collected with governments and organizations using this data to manipulate us and ultimately to threaten our freedom.
xx network is implementing blockchain technology and encryption which obscures metadata to offer a truly private, decentralized messaging and payment platform. This means that with xx network technology, there is no way for any third party -- including governments or tech companies or even the network itself -- to see information about the sender or recipient(s) of communications or payments. Plus, xx network will operate seamlessly so that users can send messages and payments just as quickly as they can with any traditional network.
Why Blockchain? Why is this better than Venmo, Facebook, Paypal, WhatsApp, etc.?
Despite its promise, blockchain remains a mysterious technology to many people. Blockchain is about removing the incentive and ability of self-interested organizations to mismanage platform users and their data. With blockchain, decentralization using incentivized governance mechanisms put users and other stakeholders in control of the development and operation of the platform.
How is xx network better than other blockchains?
Since the early days of Bitcoin, many projects have attempted to develop decentralized platforms capable of providing global-scale payments systems.
However, these networks have been burdened by large fees, slow payment confirmation times, high energy consumption, and outdated cryptography. This has slowed user adoption and prevented decentralized networks from presenting a viable alternative to centralization.
xx network is the first blockchain capable of simultaneously achieving decentralization, speed, privacy, all with quantum-secure technology. Rather than using PoS or PoW, xx network uses a novel quantum resistant consensus protocol to achieve maximum performance, while xx cMix integrates metadata shredding to ensure privacy goes beyond encryption.
How can I find more information and get involved?
You can also apply to run a node as part of the BetaNet.
Using xx (and xx messenger)
As a user
It's shocking to learn how much personal information apps and websites collect and how easily that information can be monetized and used to track our decisions and behavior. xx network introduces a new generation of decentralized technology. xx network puts you back in control of your information with seamless, easy-to-use apps.
xx messenger will let you privately communicate and exchange money with your friends, family, and associates while using the most secure cryptography in the world. In time, we believe you should be able to do everything you currently do online without compromising your identity and activity.
As a developer or company
Privacy and security, delivered by decentralized technology, have proven to be the battleground of the future.
xxDK is available to enable existing applications to interface with xx network to send communications with complete identity protection through xx cMix. At MainNet, we will integrate transfer of value.
What is xx messenger?
xx messenger supports messaging that's actually private. Existing privacy messengers encrypt your messages, but they reveal who you are talking to and when you’re talking. Open source xx cMix technology breaks the link between sender and receiver, fully eliminating your digital footprint. And messages stay end-to-end encrypted.
Your life should be yours. Coming Summer 2021.
To learn more, watch this short explainer video.
How do I download xx messenger?
xx messenger alpha testing ended with over 2400 users. The updated xx messenger is coming back in Summer 2021. To get updates, join the email list here.
Is xx network free to use?
xx messenger is free for consumers. Those running decentralized applications, smart contracts, and businesses on xx network will be able to use xx coins to purchase higher bandwidth.
What is xx coin?
xx coin is a secure digital currency that can be traded among users and businesses while incentivizing operations on the xx network. xx coin is used to incentivize governance that enforces transparent operation of the network and empowers users to participate in the ecosystem. xx coin is also used to pay for high volume usage, effect payments and for dApp incentivization.
How can I purchase xx coins?
Prior to MainNet, the xx coin has been available to non-U.S. persons in limited public sales. To learn more, please visit https://xx-coin.io/.
How will xx coins be allocated and distributed?
Please visit https://xx-coin.io/ for tokenomics and distribution information.
How does the xx network generate revenue?
This will be addressed in the xx economics paper, coming soon.
What are xx nodes and how do they work on the xx network?
xx nodes are servers that collectively operate the xx network. xx nodes must be reliable and high-performing to achieve the necessary capability and scalability to serve a global user base and replace centralized systems. xx network promotes an egalitarian approach, where any independent individual or organization is welcome to apply to the xx network to become a node.
How are nodes selected?
To learn more about node selection, check out the nodes page. xx nodes, which will ultimately number in the thousands, will be selected through a governance process.